Did you know?
Ospreys are an indicator species. The health of their population has implications for the health our coastal ecosystems.
New Jersey Endangered and Threatened Species Field Guide
Species Group: Reptile
One of New Jersey’s most colorful snakes, the scarlet snake has red and yellowish rings separated by thin black bands. It has a red, pointed snout, a plain white or yellow belly, and smooth scales. It grows to a length of 14 to 32 ¼ inches.
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
The scarlet snake can be found in the southeastern U.S. from Texas in the southwest to Maryland and Delaware in the northeast, and as far south as southern Florida. There is an isolated population in central Missouri as well as southern New Jersey.
In New Jersey, this species can be found from central Monmouth County on the north to the Cape May peninsula in the south and as far west as approximately the location of the NJ Turnpike.
Small lizards and reptile eggs are their primary food, but they’ll also eat insects, frogs, and small mice. They kill their live prey by constriction. Small eggs may be swallowed whole while larger eggs are pierced by teeth inside the back of the snake’s mouth.
Inactive during cold weather, they are most active between April and September. This snake is primarily nocturnal. They are seldom seen above ground except at night or after heavy rains.
They lay 3-8 eggs in June or July which then hatch later during the summer. The eggs are laid in moist decaying vegetation or other underground sites.
CURRENT STATUS, THREATS, AND CONSERVATION
In 2016, the New Jersey Endangered and Nongame Advisory Committee recommended a Threatened status for this species within the state, but no formal rule proposal has been filed to date. The Threatened status is largely due to population declines and habitat loss. Reasons for the decline in their population are loss of habitat, illegal capture for the pet trade, road mortality, and direct killing. This species, like many snakes, has an undeserved bad reputation and they are often killed, which is illegal in New Jersey.
HOW TO HELP
The Endangered and Nongame Species Program would like for individuals to report their sightings of scarlet snakes. Record the date, time, location, and condition of the animal and submit the information by submitting a Sighting Report Form. The information will be entered into the state’s natural heritage program, commonly referred to as Biotics. Biologists map the sighting and the resulting maps “allow state, county, municipal, and private agencies to identify important wildlife habitats and protect them in a variety of ways. This information is used to regulate land-use within the state and assists in preserving endangered and threatened species habitat remaining in New Jersey.”
Text written by Mike Davenport in 2016.
- NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed: August 6, 2015).
- Schwartz, Vicki and D.M. Golden. 2002. Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of New Jersey. New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife.
Species: C. coccinea
Report a sighting
Report a sighting of a banded shorebird or rare species.
Become a Member
Join Conserve Wildlife Foundation today and help us protect rare and imperiled wildlife for the future.
Download the complete list of New Jersey's Endangered, Threatened, & Special Concern species.